Fundamentals of search engine optimization: What? Why? How?

This is a knowledge base article. It would answer your questions on search engine optimization (SEO) and  supplement other SEO posts on this website.

In the area of search engine optimization, you will find the same set of tips, with one less here and one more there, on most expert websites (and thousands of websites that copy-paste them). I would advise that you go through the present post in full before you look for actual tips. Why? Because reading tips does not lead to success unless we know the 'why' and 'how' behind the tips. 



    What actually is SEO and how to improve search engine ranking?


    SEO or search engine optimization is the sum of all the actions you take so that your webpages (or blog posts) appear high on search engines when someone searches on the web for something related to the webpage.

    So, SEO has two important aspects:

    1. Content's relevance is very important.

    Search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo!, DuckDuckGo, etc) must be able to relate your website with the search query. If someone searches for 'yoga', your site will be shown by search engines only if it has content on yoga. 

    Take care that your website/ blog has enough content, and of good quality, on the subject on which you want the site to come up in search pages.

    2. Website's authority is equally important.

    For deciding which website to give a higher position on the search pages, Search engines must rank the websites according to their authority. Authority comes from quality of content and how other authoritative sites talk about this site.

    For getting a high ranking for your website in search engine's index, you must ensure high-quality content and also have links (=backlinks) and recommendations from other good websites, and people should talk favorably about your website, on social media. 

    Thus, search engine optimization or SEO is mostly the actions we take for improving relevance of a website and its authority

    Does search optimization matter, now that most website traffic comes through social media?


    Social media is important for getting traffic to a website, but search remains one of the top sources of traffic. What actually happens is that if the content is relevant and of high value, SEO and social media work in synergy: people share the content on social media, which gives authority signals to search engines, website starts coming high on search pages, and the virtuous cycle moves on and on.

    Search engine optimization remains very important, and its importance has only increased over the years - because now people do not remember URLs or ask others for references; they just type their search query on Google and then click on search results.


    Since search engines as well as searchers have become smarter, many of old-type SEO techniques do not work well now. In fact, if we apply some of these techniques in 2019, it hurts the websites. So, what is important is that we apply SEO techniques that are natural and keep in mind searchers more than search engines.

    We hear of frequent Google algorithm updates. What are the latest developments in this field?


    What new developments the search engines, especially Google, carry out is anybody's guess unless they themselves announce a major update. However, there are some companies that spend hours in analyzing search data of different websites and then deciphering what Google might have secretly done. Based on both these, these are the updates as of September 2019:
    • Google keeps updating its algorithms (=formulae) now and then. Such small changes can sometimes be done on daily basis! In a post in July, Google shared that in the preceding one year, it had made 'more than 3200 small changes to its search systems'. 
    • Once in a while, Google comes with 'broadcore' algo updates, which are important and may upset a website's search rankingGoogle's latest core algorithm change seems to have occurred in June. In June, Google also did a change relating to how multiple listings come up in search; in September, it made a change relating to how search results show 'rich snippets'.
    • Google advises that website owners need not worry if their search volume suddenly goes down due to algorithm updates, unless the webmaster himself has taken undesirable SEO actions. Yet, many sites lose traffic badly when major updates take place. 
    • It is believed that other search engines follow Google and carry out their own algorithm changes now and then. 
    • Search engines now use machine learning and other artificial intelligence techniques for finding the exact intent of a search query (e.g whether it is for data, finding location, buying, comparing or something else) and serving the most relevant results. 
    • Mobile search has gained priority. Google now tags its indexed pages also for mobile so that pages with mobile optimization are served when somebody searches on his mobile phone.
    • Video and image are getting importance as web content, and search engines are finding ways to rank them high. Google has started showing videos on top of search pages.
    • Search pages are now full of content that is not organic or naturally obtained. Advertisements or paid search results often come on top of search pages, and thus even the top organic search results come below paid content.

    Do unethical, black-hat SEO techniques work?


    Frankly, they work. But only some of them work and they work for a short time. They badly harm the website in the long run.

    Please remember that all SEO is not natural; some of it is technical and most of it is forced. But that does not make it unethical. Good SEO is like advertising your website and its webpages to search engines. Problem comes when people take undesirable actions, e.g. fooling search engines into believing that a poor quality content is of very high quality.
    Such actions are called 'black-hat' SEO. 

    Google is known to slap penalties on websites when it finds them using black-hat techniques of SEO. It is reported that many SEO guys promise quick rise in search rankings through such techniques. One should not fall prey to their allurements. Even Google has itself said that attempts to instantly raise search ranking may lead one into trouble.  

    Should I go for an SEO service? Will it quickly multiply my search traffic? 


    Part of this question has been answered in the previous reply: be wary when choosing someone who calls himself an 'SEO expert'. There are numerous fake SEO experts all around. In fact the Australian ombudsman on small businesses has recently called SEO 'a minefield of dodgy practitioners' and cautioned businesses against hiring SEO experts mindlessly.

    When you do not know  the tricks of the trade, or you find some actions too technical and confusing, or you fear that a small wrong step might hurt your website, you can sure think of hiring an SEO expert. If you run the website for earning purposes and need a stream of traffic, the need is much more than when you run a personal/ hobby blog.


    If you have time and inclination to learn, you can learn SEO fundamentals from the web or take an online course. You can also make use of free and paid tools, but do not get swayed by their jargon and the enormous data they generate.

    What top SEO strategy would you suggest to a blogger who is not too tech-savvy?


    All major search engines advise web publishers to focus on quality of content and updating the content regularly. At the same time, at least some SEO techniques tactics is essential because in the enormous crowd of websites, a website cannot come on top only on the strength of quality - it must apply some SEO techniques to show to the search engines that it is a website worth being shown on top of search results.

    In fact, Google and Bing themselves suggest some technical actions that website owners should not ignore, e.g. relevant URL, title and description; proper site structure; use of ALT attribute with images; linking with authoritative references; proper use of keywords; and so on.  


    However, if you feel that you need a regular stream of search traffic and you are not too tech-savvy, you can go for an SEO expert.  As mentioned above, be careful when choosing one.


    Why is my blog not coming high in Google search results? 


    Many bloggers get frustrated when they find that their blog is not coming high in Google search results despite all their SEO efforts. If you are one of them, you might be wrongly taking one or the other SEO action. For example, your content might be of poor quality, or it may be good but not useful. Your content may be of top quality but not relevant to what people are looking for. 

    Have you optimized your individual posts for visitors as well as search engines? For example: Have you given the post a great, interesting, heading and sub-divided text into sections with sub-headings? Have you added keywords in the post's URL, introduction, body, search description etc? Have you put alt attribute to images? Have you added a compelling description to the post? If you are on Wordpress, have you installed a SEO plugin (e.g. Yoast) and optimized the post according to its suggestions?


    If your blog and posts do not come high in search pages in spite of all your efforts, look closely at the competition. You might be optimizing your posts for keywords that are highly competitive: what it means is that there may already be other webpages with very high authority and relevance for those keywords. 


    One mistake bloggers and website owners usually make is to try to optimize the website but not individual posts and pages. Google and other search engines show individual pages more than websites when someone makes a search - so individual web pages need to be optimized. Page-level optimization helps greatly in improving relevance (while site-level optimization is more effective in improving authority).

    Also remember that SEO has to be continuous process; it is not done once in five years and then forgotten. You need not - and should not - go overboard with SEO but it always helps to  optimize main posts when publishing them and also re-visit site-wide SEO once every 6-months or so.



    Best SEO techniques are simple but focused.


    How good are Google and Bing webmaster tools, from SEO point of view?  


    Both Google Search Console and Bing Webmaster Tools are good as they give data on which keywords rank high, from where your site gets traffic, technical issues that might be hurting your website's SEO, etc. There are some good inbuilt tools for analytics as well optimization, and they give genuine and practical technical SEO tips. 


    Go for either of the two. Do not get bogged down with technicalities. Just see if your website has some serious issue and if your search graph is progressing positively. Take the actions that they suggest.


    If you are attracted towards SEO tools available on the web, start with free and trial versions of one or two top SEO companies. Only after that should you take a final decision whether to buy one.

    In general, you should not go for such tools, if
    • You are a hobby blogger.
    • You find that these SEO tools are complicated and useless.
    • You do not have much technical expertise and you dislike technology.
    • You already have an SEO expert by your side.
    You can think of buying SEO tools, if
    • You have time for technical actions that SEO tools require.
    • You do not hate doing technical work yourself.
    • You do not want to spend money on hiring an SEO expert but would like SEO strongly implemented on your website.
    • You find the available free SEO tools useful and think that you would have more options in the paid versions.

    How to be a successful blogger? Be discreet, avoid silly actions.

    In the second post in this 2-part series on mistakes that come in the way of success in blogging, let us discuss indiscreet acts that can put the blogger into legal difficulties, embarass him, or make him/ his blog unsafe.

    1. Copying content and pasting it into one's blog


    Most new bloggers think that copying others' content does not matter. But many bloggers have  faced legal action for indiscreetly using others' content.

    Don't copy others’ content, be it text or images or videos. In case you must use others' content, ask permission. 

    On social networks, you are more likely to get away with copy-pasting from other places in the web, but blog is a more permanent space and you must be much more careful. 


    Very old creations, content on 'public domain', CC0 copyright certification and 'fair use' (when a small block of text is used for the purpose of quoting, etc) are some situations in which you can copy-paste content into your blog. 


    Please also remember that attributing the copied content to the source is not enough. That is no legal defence but only a courtesy you showed to the creator of that content.


    [If you are interested in further details about the legal position on copy-pasting others' content into your blog, you can refer to The Manual of Blogging.]


    2. Using untested themes, widgets, plugins and code 


    There are hundreds of free (and paid) themes, plugins, widgets and codes available on the web -  but not all of them are safe. The harm they can do ranges from diverting traffic to stealing data and involving you secretly in malicious/ criminal activities. 


    Therefore, before you put any code into your blog, be sure of its genuineness. For example, if you have a Wordpress blog, apply Wordpress verified plugins; if you have a Blogger blog, use only its own themes or use others' themes after thoroughly checking their code.


    3. Sharing personal information about others


    Unless it serves a special purpose and the information given by you will not in any way harm the person’s reputation or privacy, desist from giving information about a person’s family life, kids, schooling, hobbies etc. If the person is known to you, seek his/ her permission beforehand.


    4. Recommending products without testing them


    You may review  products on the blog, but ethics demands that you declare whether you have any obligation to the company. You should, for the sake of your credibility, if nothing else, not recommend a service [e.g. a course] or product unless you have tested it. Desist from recommending medicines or diets or treatments unless you are qualified to do so. If you are greatly satisfied/ dissatisfied with something [e.g. service of an airline], do share your experience but in most cases it is better to not make too strong value judgements.


    5. Getting personal or indecent when criticising others


    You may have strong views about an idea being propagated by a person or the person himself, but do not make personal comments or criticise him / her on your blog or any other social media account. 


    Feelings are very important in any form of communication, including the digital one. Be careful about sensitivities of different religions, racial groups, ‘weaker sections of the society’, and regions. Do not use expletives and racial expressions though these might look witty. Avoid four-letter words.  


    6. Bragging excessively


    Promotion is fine, but not when it is excessive. A bit of self-aggrandisement is OK, but not too much. 


    Don’t assume a fake identity with fake achievements and expertise. Don’t put an artificially bloated stat-counter on the blog. These might not be illegal, but fakes do not shine for long: there is high probability that your fake persona will be exposed one day soon and then you will lose all your reputation.  


    When you are a new blogger and you indulge in excessive self praise or fake experise, you will expose yourself. If you are an established blogger, your blogging success will come from genuine expertise, not faking. 

    7. Blogging outside legal/ safe zone


    Blogging by children below 13 years is illegal in most countries. 


    Blogging (or any other form of media/ social media communication) on certain topics is prohibited by governments due to security reasons. In some countries, too personal criticism is taken as libel, and sharp criticism of the state religion is seen as spread of hatred. In most places, religious and national icons are required to be shown due respect, and their inappropriate depiction is a criminal offence. So, be careful.


    Most nations have enacted laws relating to information technology. However, their implementation is usually very faulty, and authorities are known to misuse them - many times in their zeal or ignorance. That is another reason why one should be careful when being unreasonably critical <and without proof> about a person, organization or rulers. One should also avoid intemperate language that is prone to misinterpretation. 


    Many bloggers have faced persecution and some have lost their lives taking on criminals through their blogs or other social media accounts. Be conscious of dangers and take adequate precautions if you venture into this area.


    Just to recap, I am leaving you with this small infographic: 



    blogging: success without silly mistakes
       
    Click here for the first part of the series, For success in blogging, first correct mistakes